Today, the idea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in some subjects by engrossing him in tuition day and night but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he may fully face the future?
2. Scouting and Girl Guiding
Scouting is a multipurpose activity meant for pupils from 11 to 18. The duties. They undertake social service programmes, e.g. cleanliness of environment, preparing paths, serving at social or religious functions etc. They also organize camp fires, picnics and outings. They work together and live together. Every scout obeys certain code of conduct. He has to do at least one good job daily. He learns certain skills like the use of ropes and sticks, pitching tent etc. The objectives of scouting can be:
(i) To teach dignity of labour: It aims at teaching dignity of labour. The children do certain odd tasks with their own hands. They do manual work. This is the type of training which is badly needed in our schools.
(ii) To develop fellow feeling: It develops fellow feeling in the students. They have to perform all types of activities collectively. All the pupils rich or poor, high or low, work together. This develop in them a sense of universal brotherhood.
(iii) To provide practical training in social service: The scouts must be given practical training in social service. They serve at various school functions such as prize distribution, parent day and others. They render useful service at the time of big fairs and gatherings.
(iv) To develop love of adventure: Scouting develops love of adventure Scouts plan outing. They face difficulties with determination. They are not afraid of problems arising in outdoor life.
(v) To develop love of nature: The scouts lead camp life, plan outdoor games and live in natural outdoor games and live in natural surroundings. This develop in them love for nature.
(vi) To promote physical well-being of the pupils: Scouting provides a network of physical activities, carried out in the open air. The scouts get opportunities of self-expression when they organize camp fire and shout slogans etc.
How to organize scouting?
Scouting is an activity which has many educational values but its merits depend upon its efficient organization. The following should be observed while organizing this activity:
(i) Scoutmaster: The school should have an experienced and energetic scoutmaster. He should have the qualities like courage, determination, resourcefulness, love of adventure and administrative ability. He should be elected with care. In fact, the success of scouting mainly depends upon the scoutmaster.
(ii) Selecting pupils: The scoutmaster should carefully select pupils capable of working as scouts. The number of pupils should not exceed 32 in a troop.
(iii) Providing training: The pupils should be aquainted with what is to be done in scouting. They should understand the laws of scouting, the pledge, the scout flag, tasks and duties. They should be taught certain skills like tying knots, pitching tents, digging trenches etc. They should also know how to serve at gatherings.
(iv) Providing equipment: There should be sufficient equipment in the school e.g., ropes, sticks, uniform, first-aid materials, camping materials and books. Without adequate equipment, the scout will not be able to discharge duties efficiently.
(v) Providing opportunities of service: Scouting is not restricted to theoretical discussions about social service. For instance, they may be asked to serve at school functions such as prize distribution, parents day etc. They may be asked to serve at various religious, social functions, fairs etc.
(vi) Organizing Camp fire: The scouts also organize camp fire. They sit together and enjoy themselves. They may enact some drama, skit or sing songs or narrate tit-bits etc. In this way they have plenty of fun and recreation.
(vii) Recognition of Work: The scouts should be encouraged to take active part in various programmes. There should be positive incentive for good work done e.g., rewards, badges, merit certificate etc. may be given to outstanding scouts.
(viii) Evaluation: The outcome of scouting should be evaluated. Towards the end of the session, it should be seen how far the activity was a success. The drawbacks in organizing the activity should be noted. The total programme of activity should be rewarded. A report should be prepared. This will hint at suggestions for the coming year.
Scouting is a very useful activity if it is properly planned and made an integral part of school education programme. Therefore regular time for scouting should fixed in the school work.
3. Excursions and Field Trips.
Excursions mean small journeys to places of historical, geographical, cultural, industrial, agricultural and educational importance. Field trips are visit to some local places e.g., visiting a farm, factory, market place, river, museum etc. By moving outdoors, pupils get first hand-knowledge and experience.
Objectives of Field Trips and Excursion
(i) To Provide first-hand knowledge. When the pupils visit various places, they get first hand information about various places or things. This supplements class work visit to various museums, temples, buildings, mountains, valleys and cannels help in the teaching of history and geography. Visits to industrial establishments, laboratories factories help in teaching science and so on.
(ii) To introduce variety in school programme: The school programme is usually very heavy. It becomes monotonous and dry. The children listlessly study various subjects. The excursions and field trips provide a healthy change in the school programmes.
(iii) To develop qualities of leadership: The excursions should be planned and organized mainly by the pupils. When they make arrangements of travelling, boarding and loading etc., they develop initiative, resourcefulness and self-confidence. They get opportunity of training leadership by organizing such excursion.
(iv) To develop social traits: The trips have to be organized Co-operatively. The pupils develop fellow feeling and friendship. They work together, eat together and move together.
(v) To satisfy the wandering habit of adolescents: It is known that adolescents are usually fed up with the static programme of the school. They want to move outdoor and visit various places. In the absence of such trips they may miss the classes and loiter about here and there. They may pick up to bad habits.
(vi) To widen their mental horizon: Trips add to the knowledge and experience of pupils. They become conscious of their wider physical and social environment .
How to organize?
The following suggestions may be made:
(i) Finding suitable time: The excursion should be arranged utilizing any holiday or Sunday etc. not to disturb the teaching work in the school. However, the right time of excursions and field trips is when the student study about relevant places, building or other things of their physical and social environment (Co-relation teaching)
(ii) Deciding the purpose of the visit: First of all, the students and the teachers should be clear about the purpose of the visit. Mere aimless visit will not be much educational importance.
(iii) Making arrangement: The teachers and the students should make all arrangement for the excursion. Concerned authorities may have to be contacted. Necessary permissions from the headmaster and the parents should be sought. Appropriate expenditure should be calculated. The school also should partially meet the expenditure.
(iv) Collecting advance information about the place to be visited: The pupils should collect advance information about the place of visit. They may consult guide book or person familiar with those places.
(v) Assigning duties: The various duties should be divided into groups and group leader be made. The group leaders will be responsible for all activities.
To be continued